Chapter 14
Section 3

Condensed Descriptions and References

Note: The term "not commercial" in the following descriptions refers to experimental processes that did not reach the market, even though they may have been patented, reported in the literature, or publicly exhibited. Authenticated specimens are in several cases uncommon, but some were widely reported and used.

Uncoated paper
Not commercial.
1844 ‑ Sir John Herschel: positive or negative on paper; brown image that quickly faded. Also European name for ambrotypes. See listing under same name in Glass section.
References: Eder [48, 339]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65, 151]; Snelling [133, 116‑120].

(also amylotype)
Not commercial.
1842 ‑ Sir John Herschel, England.
Sensitive material ‑ flower juice extracts. Exposure time 4 to 5 weeks. Impractical process, but consider its implications in fading of vegetable dyes used for tinting various types (see Delery [43]; Nicholson [106]; Rothery [128]).
References: Crawford [38, 67]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65, 151]; Snelling [133, 37‑42, 113‑116].

(also Playertype)
1839 Albrecht Breyer, Belgium.
Negative facsimile of text (white letters on brownish‑black background). A contact process: no camera or lens used. Sensitive material: silver chloride. Rare.
References: Eder [48, 336]; Gilbert [65, 164].

(also Talbotype, salt print).
Patented 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot. In use to about 1860. Sensitive material: silver nitrate, often toned. First commercial positive/negative process. Matte fiber printing-out paper. Some fairly standard sizes: 4‑3/4 x 6‑1/2, 6‑1/2 x 8 1/2, 8‑1/2 x 10‑1/2, 9 x 11, 9‑1/2 x 11‑1/2, 12 x 16 inches.
Colors ‑ yellowish brown, rose, purplish, variable fading.
References: Crawford [38, 22]; Eder [48, 316]; Gernsheim [61, 80; 162]; Gilbert [65, 152]; Jammes [82]; Lassam [80]; Thomas [142, 56]; Welling [150, 91]; many other histories of photography.

Not commercial.
1844 ‑ Dr. Thomas Wood (Ireland).
Sensitive material ‑ iron iodide and silver nitrate; image appearance after period of dark storage, the delay attributed to catalysis.
References: Eder [48, 326]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65, 153].

Also katatype; 1901, W. Ostwald, Germany.
An image transfer process utilizing paper soaked in hydrogen peroxide and placed in contact with a silver or platinum print. Gilbert describes it as "obscure".
References: Cassell's [84, 94]; Gilbert [65, 165].

(also LeGray process).
1851 ‑ Gustave LeGray, France.
Waxed paper negative, a modification of Talbot's calotype. The purpose was to improve light transmission through the paper and reduce the pattern of paper fiber during positive printing. Cerolein is a white constituent of beeswax.
References: Crawford [38, 38]; Gilbert [65, 155]; Newhall [105, 50]; Towler [145, 178].

Not commercial (low sensitivity).
1843 Robert Hunt.
Sensitive material: copper sulphate and potassium bichromate. Direct positive. Colors ‑ orange, lilac.
References: Eder [48, 553]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65, 153].

(also chripotype).
Not commercial.
1842, Sir John Herschel.
Sensitive material: ferric salts developed with gold or silver chloride; basis for later commercial kallitype.
Color ‑ purple.
References: Crawford [38‑68]; Gernsheim [61-169]; Gilbert [65‑ 154]; Lietze [92, 53]; Towler [145, 273].

Color ‑ blue and white; the familiar blueprint, still used.
1842 ‑ Sir John Herschel: positive print from a negative: blue image with white highlights. A print from a positive line drawing produced white lines on a blue background.
1881 ‑ Henri Pellet (patent), positive print from a positive: blue lines on white background from positive line drawing.
Good image permanence, limited tonal range. Paper was usually sized to reduce penetration of image into the paper.
Sensitive material: iron salts, several processes: see Lietze[32] References: Burbank [28, 17‑24]; Crawford [38, 163]; Eder [48, 562]; Gilbert [65-154]; Lietze [92, 53;64]; Towler [145, 273]; Welling [150, 300].

(also ferrotype).
Not commercial.
1844 ‑ Robert Hunt.
Gum arabic salt print sensitized with silver nitrate, developed in ferrous sulphate.
References: Eder [48‑326]; Gernsheim [61‑169]; Gilbert [65‑154]; Snelling [133, 111].

(also diazotype).
1889 Dr. Adolph Feer, Germany.
Not commercial in original form, but forerunner of commercial Ozalid copy process.
Sensitive material ‑ based on aniline dyes; various colors.
References: Eder [48, 550]; Gilbert [65, 154].

Not commercial.
1844 ‑ Robert Hunt, England.
Variation of energiatype using sodium fluoride.
References: Eder [48, 326]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65, 154].

Also hellenotype; see Chapter 8
Variation of ambrotype.
Reference: Marder [94]

(also argentotype) 1843 ‑ Sir John Herschel, England.
1889 ‑ Dr. W.W.J. Nichol, England. Sensitive materials ‑ silver and ferric salts with variations. Usually brown to reddish brown; appearance sometimes resembled platinotypes, but with fading problems. Often coated and processed by amateurs, until it was superseded by platinum and gaslight papers. Colors ‑ brown, black, sepia, purple; matte fiber surface.
References: Cassell's [84, 314‑316]; Crawford [38, 177]; Eder
[48, 543]; Gilbert [65, 155]; Jansen [83]; Schriever & Cummings [131, 285].
See also Appendix II.

1870's; some vogue after World War I because of platinum scarcity. Appearance similar to platinotypes; palladium salts were cheaper than platinum and were sometimes used together in mixed chemistry. References: Eder [48, 544]; Gilbert [65, 155].

Patented 1873 by William Willis, England, who formed the Platinotype Company 1879; sepia version patented 1878.
Colors: neutral black, silver‑gray; warm brown was less common. Toning was not needed to improve permanence as it was in silver prints. Very long tonal range, seldom faded. Embedded image, matte fiber surface. Often regarded as the most beautiful black and white process.
References: Crawford [38, 76]; Eder [48, 544]; Gernsheim [61,
345]; Gilbert [65, 156]; Lietze [92, 79]; Newhall [105, 142];
Welling [149, 83]; Welling [150, 258; 273]; The Photo [115].

Coated paper


Invented 1850 by Louis Blanquart‑Evrard, France; in use until the 1890’s.
The most widely used paper for forty years, consequently high survival rate among 19th century photographs. A silver printing out paper. Size ‑ to 30 inches wide.
Appearance: tinted, toned, faded; rose‑brown, purple, yellow. Many specimens have a distinctive and almost unique faded yellow color. Some have dyed albumen, several colors but blue and pink were common. Very long tonal range. Thin dense paper, usually glued to a decorative mount. Entire surface usually glossy, rarely matte; according to Reilly (definitive reference 121-132), print surfaces made after about 1870 were glossier ('burnished') than those made earlier. Surface may have fine eggshell texture and minute hairline cracks. No baryta undercoat was used as it was with collodion and gelatin papers; therefore paper fibers can be seen in the highlights of albumen paper. Edges usually were hand trimmed and are often slightly crooked.
References: Crawford [38, 45]; Eastman Kodak [47, 32;33]; Eder [48, 339]; Gernsheim [61, 195; 401]; Gilbert [65, 151;157]; Lietze [92, 29]; Reilly [121]; Towler [145, 194]; Welling [150, 79]; Delery [42, 154]; Newhall [105]; Reilly et al [123].

Aristo paper 1880's
Trade name Aristotype or Aristotypie J. B. Obernetter, Germany; commercial usage 1867 ‑ present (used for studio proofing). Printing‑out paper; silver chloride or bromide in collodion or gelatin with excess silver nitrate; later versions with baryta undercoat to conceal paper fibers. Silver chloride in gelatin was also available as developing-out paper under trade names such as Velox. Color warm red, brown or purplish, or glossy chocolate brown resembling albumen; appearance and color differed depending on developers and toners, leading to confusion in identification. Collodion POP (Printing-Out Papers) coexisted with gelatin POP; see Chapter 2 for further information.
Ref. Newhall [105]; matte - Crawford [38]; Welling [150]. In matte form it resembled platinotypes. Commonly found as cabinet cards and cartes‑de-visite.
References: Cassell's [84, 39]; Crawford [38, 63]; Eastman Kodak [47, 34]; Eder [48, 448; 536]; Gernsheim [61, 399]; Newhall [105, 126]; Welling [149, 81]; Welling [150, 351].

Cameo 1860‑1880.
A variation of the carte‑de‑visite with a convex surface resembling a cameo medallion. Sometimes the effect was produced with cotton padding under the print. Figure 3a shows the front of a simple embossed cameo in side lighting; figure 3b is the reverse side. The emulsion is badly fissured because of the forming process, which only shows in grazing illumination.
The image is 2" x 3".
Reference: Cassell's [84, 82].

Figure 3a    Figure 3b


(also anthrakotype, chromotype, gum bichromate, hydrotype, Lambertype, Mariotype, trade name Autotype). Early inventors included Mongo Ponton, Scotland, 1839; W.H.F. Talbot, England 1852; Alphonse Poitevin, France 1855, Sir Joseph Swan, England 1864. The process utilizes gelatin sensitized with potassium bichromate and developed in warm water (see Chapter 5), with many variations. Poitevin added carbon dust as a pigment, but it had poor tonal range until Swan developed the transfer technique; the term "carbon" usually is applied to transfer prints. "Carbon tissue" has been commercially available for this technique from about 1864 until the present; tissue made by the Autotype Co. was available in more than fifty colors. Lambertype is a carbon transfer to an enamelled surface; chromotype is the same process contact printed. Bichromated gelatin is also the basis of collotype ink printing and the manufacture of etched gravure plates, leading to confusion in process descriptions. Some processes are still in use today. Appearance: not faded; long tonal range after 1864; many colors, with brown predominating; no grain or dot pattern; glossy or matte; highlights show paper fiber; occasional wrinkles from the transfer process. If mounted, the imprint "Permanent" may be present on the bottom of the mount.
References: Cassell's [84, 31]; Crawford [38, 69]; Eder [48, 561]; Gernsheim [61, 338]; Gilbert [65, 152; 162]; Lietze [92, 77; 111]; owler [145, 277 ‑ 283]; Welling [149, 83]; Welling [150, 189; 245].

(also ozobrome, ozotype, Mariotype).
Inventors: A. Marion 1873; Thomas Manly: ozotype 1899; ozobrome 1905. Marketed by Autotype Company 1919. A transfer between a carbon print and a silver bromide-gelatin print. The process is well described in Crawford [38‑187], and some of the characteristic faults of transfer processes can help in identification; see Chapter 4. Pigmented as were carbon prints.
References: Crawford [38, 187]; Eder [48, 561]; Gilbert [65, 15]; Newhall [105, 276].

Charbon Velour
1893 ‑ Victor Artigue, 1900 ‑ Theodore Henri Fresson, France. Pigmented gelatin, sensitized with potassium bichromate and developed in an abrasive mixture of warm water and sawdust; sold as Artigue Paper. Appearance similar to other gum prints in many colors; according to Newhall [105‑147] some workers' prints resemble water colors.
References: Crawford [38, 87]; Eder [48, 560]; Newhall [105, 147]; Holme [77, 214].

crayon prints
Many cabinet cards and cartes‑de‑visite carried advertisements for crayon prints on their reverse sides. Crayons were basically colored chalk or pastels used to tint matte‑surfaced prints. Lithographic crayons were wax or grease based and were used mostly in litho processing; they were not used in the final print.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 152]; Darrah [40, 191‑192]; Barhydt [19]. See also Appendix II.

Patented 1850 ‑ John A. Whipple, United States.
Salt prints made from albumen glass negatives containing honey. Color ‑ brown. Whipple was primarily a daguerreotypist but is credited with helping popularize paper printing in the United States.
Cassell's lists "chrystollotype", attributed to a secret process of Whipple; it may be a name variation of crystallotype. Whipple apparently made albumen glass negatives and albumen paper positives (Welling 150, 91‑93).
References: Cassell's [84, 108]; Taft [140, 120; 417]; Welling
[149, 105]; Welling [150, 72; 98].

gaslight paper
1893 ‑ Some tradenames were Velox, Solio, Azo.
Gelatin silver chloride developing‑out paper. Less sensitive than bromide papers, it could be exposed under artifical light from a gas Welsbach mantle, and then developed under the same light by turning down the gas. The shadows characteristically show a reflective tarnished or bronzed appearance (Eastman Kodak calls it "silvering"). For details see Chapter 2 and Reilly [122]. This
effect also occurs in other silver‑based emulsions, including silver-gelatin glass plates, but it is usually more pronounced in developing‑out papers.
References: Crawford [38‑65]; Eastman Kodak [47, 54; 30, 28;34]; Gilbert 65, 9]; Welling [149, 81].

1853 ‑ Marc Antoine Gaudin, France: See also Gaudinotypes in the section Glass Bases.
Paper negative, early collodion or gelatin emulsions.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 154].

gum bichromate
1894 ‑ a variation of the earlier carbon process, it allowed easy manipulation of density and pigmentation for artistic effects. See also gum platinum.
Appearance: sometimes printed in multiple layers to increase image density; the structure may be seen under a microscope. Glossy shadows, paper fibers in highlights. Many colors (see Crawford 38, 202). May have brush marks to resemble paintings.
References: Crawford [38, 74; 88; 199]; Eder [48, 561 ‑ 566]; Gernsheim [61, 463]; Gilbert [65, 154]; Newhall [105, 147]; Scopick [132]; Towler [145, 187]; Welling [150, 386].

gum platinum
Gum print on top of a platinotype. This unlikely combination was introduced in 1898 to give the processor more manipulative control over contrast and tone. Some good examples are reproduced in Holme [77]; Edward Steichen was a leading practitioner. Appearance: glossy shadows, matte fiber highlights similar to carbon prints; misregistration between the multiple layers may sometimes be seen microscopically; may have some raised‑relief edges due to the thickness of the gum.
References: Crawford [38, 88]; Eder [48, 561]; Gilbert [65, 154]; Holme [77, 214].

(also carbon)
Patented 1889 ‑ A. H. Cros, France.
Dyed bichromated gelatin on paper and glass, leading to later color processes such as pinatype.
References: Eder [48, 649 (glass)]; Gilbert [65, 162 (paper)].

(also atrograph)
1853, Dr. Langdell, Philadelphia; A.A. Martin, France. 1854; G.M. Campbell, England, 1854.
Collodion print on black paper sensitized with silver nitrate; a combination, like the ambrotype, not noted for its brilliance.
References: Gernsheim [61, 237]; Gilbert [65, 152].

Paper coated with gold, silver, copper, or bronze metal powders, with a printing‑out emulsion on top. The effect was that of an image on metal. Uncommon.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 356].

ozobrome (also carbro)
1905 ‑ Thomas Manly, England.
Carbon prints made from gelatin silver bromide prints by contact transfer; replaced the ozotype.
References: Cassell's [84, 386]; Crawford [38,188]; Eder [48, 562]; Gernsheim [61, 464].

(also Mariotype, carbro)
1899 ‑ Thomas Manly
Bichromated gelatin paper transfer, a variation of the carbro process. Did not require light for exposure of the final print.
References: Cassell's [84, 387]; Crawford [38, 188]; Eder [48, 562]; Gernsheim [61, 464].

1864, George Simpson, England.
Silver chloride collodion fore‑runner of aristo paper in the 1880’s.
References: Cassell's [84, 494]; Eder [48, 536]; Welling [150,

The original transferotype was silver bromide emulsion on top of a soluble gelatin release layer on paper. After exposure and development, the bromide layer was placed against the desired base material and hot water applied to the paper backing, which melted the gelatin and allowed the paper to be peeled off. As with other transfer processes, the image was reversed. Later bichromated gelatin and collodion images were transferred to many different base materials.
References: Cassell's [84, 546]; Eder [48, 566]; Gilbert [65, 158; 166]; Towler [145, 150; 305].

Not commercial. 1864 ‑ J. Wothly, Belgium
Uranium and silver salts in collodion. Also made without collodion, simply called uranium prints, without gloss.
References: Gernsheim [61, 344]; Gilbert [65, 156]; Lietze [92 121]; Towler [145, 273].


(also relievo)
Patented 1854 ‑ James Cutting, United States; made until about 1865.
Collodion negative on glass with a black backing which causes the image to look like a positive. See "amphitype" for a discussion of predecessors. Ambrotypes were cased like Daguerreotypes and some tintypes which they resemble. See Chapter 7.
The "relievo" (1857) is an ambrotype in which the background was scraped off the collodion; the remaining image was then backed with a light‑colored cardboard spaced behind the plane of the image so that a three‑dimensional stacked effect or relief was created. Relatively uncommon (Gernsheim 61, 237; Cassell’s 84, 457).
References: Crawford [38, 43]; Gernsheim [61, 199; 236]; Newhall [105, 63]; Towler [145, 128]; Welling [149, 5]; Welling [150, 111]; Newhall [105].

1851 ‑ W.H.F. Talbot: albumen on glass. 1856 ‑ Blanquart‑Evrard: albumen on glass that could be viewed as either a positive or a negative, similar to later ambrotypes. 1840's ‑ Sir John Herschel positive or negative on paper. The name "amphitype" was used in Europe for the ambrotype; otherwise none of these processes became commercial, except as forerunners.
Reference: Eder [48, 339].

(also collodion wet plate, collodiotype). 1851 ‑ described by
Frederick Scott Archer; disputed by Cutting and LeGray. The basis for collodion negatives on glass, ambrotypes, paper prints, lantern slides. Superseded by gelatin on glass in the 1870’s, and on paper by albumen. Wet‑plate collodion negatives
can often be recognized by unevenly coated edges and other hand‑coating blemishes. This was a characteristic of most early coated‑glass processes; uneven edges on paper prints could be trimmed while glass could not.
References: Crawford [38, 42]; Eder [48, 346]; Gernsheim [61, 197]; Gilbert [65, 130; 159]; Newhall [105, 59]; Taft [140, 118]; Towler [145, 144]; Welling [150, 126].

Glass negative, gelatin sensitized with bichromate and dyed with carbon (India ink).
Reference: Gilbert [65, 162].

1850's (also Crystal photograph)
Albumen paper print sealed to the convex inner surface of a cover glass, tinted and waxed, backed with white paper.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 154] (details of process); Gilbert [65 158; 165]; Coe & Haworth‑Booth [32, 14]; Gill [67]

1856 (also hallotype, hellenotype). Resembled crystoleums; used hallotype or hellenotype (1857) process of mounting a tinted transparency over a positive on glass or paper; microscopic examination may show the multiple image. See Chapter 7.
References: Cassell's [84, 181; 292]; Gilbert [65, 158].

Transparent positives used to make enlarged negatives for contact printing; collodion or albumen.
Reference: Eder [48, 443]; Gernsheim [61, 313].

Patented 1850's ‑ William Campbell, United States. Flat wetplate collodion negative sandwiched to wet‑plate positive, waxed and tinted.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 158].


1861 ‑ Alexis Gaudin, France: Collodion or gelatin emulsions on glass plates.
References: Eder [48, 376]; Gernsheim [61, 324; 327].

Patented 1850 ‑ Langenheim Brothers, Philadelphia.
Albumen lantern slides (positives). Color ‑ brown.
References: Eder [48, 340]; Gernsheim [61, 195]; Gilbert [65, 159]; Taft [140, 117]; Welling [150, 72; 78].

ivorytype 1855.
Tinted salt print, collodion or albumen image waxed to glass and bound with white backing; resembles the later Eburneum process.
References: Cassell's [84, 313]; Gernsheim [61, 344]; Welling [149, 113]; Welling [150, 136].

opalotype 1890's
Opal (milky) glass with a gelatin‑bromide emulsion exposed and printed conventionally, or a transferred carbon‑gelatin image. Some images were collodion-silver or platinum.
References: Gilbert [65, 165]; Cassell's [84]; Gill [67].

See ambrotype.

Patented 1856 ‑ Albert Bisbee, United States.
Positive image on spherical glass.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 168].


A dusting process predating photography, for producing a random grain pattern in etched plates for halftone printing: grain gravure as opposed to geometrical screen gravure.
References: Cassell's [84, 35]; Crawford [38, 245]; Eder [48, 591]; Jussim [85, 56; 339]; Towler [145, 289; 294].

Trade name from 1868, the Autotype Company was known for its collotypes, carbon prints, and other processes.
Colors ‑ more than fifty.
References: Crawford [38, 73]; Eder [48, 626 ‑ 631]; Gernsheim [61, 548]; Newhall [105, 61]; Welling [150, 189; 259].


1911; first suggested 1907 by E. J. Wall, England.
Prints resemble oil paintings. Ink transfer process; prints were also made without transference. Greasy‑ink impression from a gelatin silver bromide print. Ink may show a microscopic random grainy texture (not a dot pattern) because of variable ink penetration in the paper. Sometimes the final picture simply consisted of the inked gelatin matrix; the variations in gelatin thickness can be detected by finger touch. The inked transfer print is as flat as the paper.
References: Crawford [38, 94; 213]; Eder [48, 563]; Gernsheim [61, 484]; Holme [77, 215]; Thomas [142, 77; 78].

chalkotype plates
1866; Also Spitzertype, Stagmatype plates.
Brass halftone plates, forerunner of cuprotype plates in 1880.
References: Eder [48, 637]; Gilbert [65, 162].

(also Albertype, Albertotype, Autotype, Artotype, bromoil,
heliotype, Levytype, Paynetype, phototype, photoglyphic).
Inked print from bichromated gelatin plate; gelatin is a protein colloid, hence the name collotype. Matte or glossy, any color, black commonest. Microscopic wrinkled reticulated pattern, irregular but not like the random grains in aquatint. Processes not using a geometrical screen pattern closely resemble original photographs. No fading.
Basic process patented 1855 by Alphonse Poitevin, France. Many variations; some examples:
Albertype ‑ 1873; collotype process; often used for postcards; maximum size 20 x 25 inches; ref. Jussim [85, 106]; Eder [48:431,513].

artotype - 1879; a collotype process; ref. Welling [150, 259].
heliotype ‑ Patented 1870, E. Edwards, England; commercially successful, used by Mathew Brady; refs. Gernsheim [61, 548]; Hearn [75, 341]; Welling [150, 274].

phototype ‑refs. Jussim [85, 248]; Welling [150, 235].

photoglyphic ‑ Talbot; ref. Crawford [38, 245].
Other references: Crawford [38, 269]; Eder [48, 553; 563; 617]; Gernsheim [61, 547]; Gilbert [65, 276]; Gilbert [64, 162]; Jussim [85, 56; 248]; Newhall [105, 61; 251]; Welling [149, 85]; Welling [150, 202; 222; 235].


1863 ‑ Campbell Duncan Dallas formed short‑lived company.
Inked engravings, not halftones.
References: Eder [48, 582]; Gernsheim [61, 543].

1871 ‑ William August Leggo
Screened halftone, inked. First used for printing a newspaper.
References: Eder [48, 627]; Gilbert [65, 162].
Patented 1875 by L. E. Levy and D. Bachrach Jr.
Electrotyped swelled gelatin; a form of collotype.
References: Gernsheim [61, 551]; Welling [150, 236].

Meisenbach Process
1886 - The Autotype Co.
One of the earliest commercial halftone processes.
References: Gernsheim [61, 550]; Jussim [85, 68]; Newhall [105, 251; 253]; Welling [150, 277].

See 'collotype'

A trade name for Daguerreotypes made in the United States by John Plumbe. Listed here because he also made etchings derived from Daguerreotypes for ink reproductions.
References: Gernsheim [61, 126]; Gilbert [65, 163].
Patented 1864 ‑ Walter B. Woodbury, England. Also photoglyptic
(French name); stannotype, a variation. The image consists of dyed gelatin with no grain or screen pattern, applied to paper under hydraulic pressure. Maximun size 11 x 14 inches. Any color but warm brown was commonest, with long tonal range, no fading. More closely resemble original photographs then any other photomechanical process. Sometimes marked "permanent" or "Woodburytype" on mounting. Frequently mass produced and bound or "tipped" into books. More likely to show raised relief at the edges of shadows than carbon prints. Carbon and Woodburytype prints are difficult to distinguish: both have glossy shadows, but Woodburytypes may also show gloss in the highlights. Fibers are visible in the highlights of both types. Woodburytypes have trimmed paper edges because the hydraulic process caused oozing of the gelatin, and sometimes showed dark particle flaws in the highlights.
References: Crawford [38, 285; 289]; Eder [48, 619]; Gernsheim [61, 340; 341; 540]; Gilbert [65, 163]; Newhall [105, 251]; Welling [149, 85]; Welling [150, 202; 235]; Reilly [122, 65, 72].


Patented 1837 ‑ L. J. M. Daguerre, France. The first commercially successful photographic process. Made until about 1860. Always enclosed in glass‑fronted case. Voluminous documentation: see Chapter 7 for full description and references.

Several types: collodion image fired on enamelled copper; or fish glue sensitized with ammonium bichromate, fired on copper or zinc; many colors.
References: Burbank [28, 165‑189]; Cassell's [84, 217‑218]; Gernsheim [61, 343]; Towler [145, 308]; Thomas [142, 79].

Patented 1863 ‑ Simon Wing, Boston
A miniature tintype 1 x 1‑3/8 inch. Figure 11 shows a typical Gem in a brass frame crimped to a cardboard carte de visite; there were many mounting variations.
References: Gilbert [65, 160]; Taft [140, 164]; Welling [150, 31].

(also ferrotype, Gem, melainotype).
Patented 1856 ‑ Hamilton L. Smith, United States.
Collodion image on black or brown japanned iron, which is magnetic. The image often shows crazing, especially visible in the highlights. Very popular process, in use until about 1930. The largest size was 6‑1/2 x 8‑1/2 inches. See Chapter 7 for full description.
References: Crawford [38, 44]; Eder [48, 370]; Gernsheim [61, 237]; Gilbert [65, 155; 160]; Taft [140, 153]; Towler [145, 142]; Welling [149, 31]; Welling [150, 117].

J.W. Draper, U.S.
Copper‑plated duplicate of gilded Daguerreotype.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 543]; Gilbert [65, 168].

Miscellaneous bases

Tintype process (collodion) applied to varnished cardboard or leather. In other variations both collodion and bichromated gelatin were transferred.
References: Cassell's [84, 330]; Gilbert [65, 158]; Welling [150, 113].

Late 19th century. Colored aniline dye images on paper and fabrics.
References: Cassell's [84, 184]; Eder [48, 550]; Gilbert [65, 165].

1865 ‑ E. Burgess.
A collodion‑gelatin composite transfer process, with zinc oxide pigment backing that looked like ivory. First deposited on glass, then peeled off and remounted. Reference: Cassell's [84, 206]; Gernsheim [61, 344].

Also linotype ("lin‑" refers to the linen base, not to be confused with the newspaper linotype machine). 1856 ‑ linen base, stretched on frames and oil‑colored. Image printed by Talbotype salt print process. Few surviving specimens.
Reference: Eder [48, 325]; Gilbert [65, 165].

nitrate film
Patented by Eastman chemists. Widely used for roll and sheet film in many sizes including 35mm cine and still film. Extremely flammable and unstable: see Chapter 3.
References: Eastman [47, 90]; Eder [48, 489]; Hager [69, 1]; Gernsheim [61, 408]; Rempel [124, 7].

1853 ‑ Wulff & Co., France.
Collodion image on black waxed linen or dark leather. Few surviving specimens. Reference: Eder [48, 370].

Safety film
c1939, Eastman Kodak Co.
Principally cellulose acetate, marked "SAFETY FILM" on edges. Eastman produced acetate films as early as 1909 (Eder 31, 491) but they were not widely used at that time. Some stripping films were made from 1884 to c1890 that were composed of gelatin, which is not very flammable, depending on condition. Others were collodion-gelatin composites, less flammable than nitrate film but still not considered safety films. See Chapter 3.

Microphotograph (about 1/8 inch diameter) mounted with an integral lens in jewelry and souvenirs, such as tiny ivory telescopes and many other forms. The lens was invented by Lord Charles Stanhope before 1816.
Reference: Gilbert [64, 171]; Gilbert [65, 167].

Also atregraph.
Collodion and albumen emulsions and bichromated gelatin were transferred to many kinds of base materials. Transfer processes reverse the image (Chapter 10).
References: Cassell's [84, 546]; Eder [48, 558; 607‑624]; Gilbert [65, 158; 166]; Towler [145, 150; 305].