Note: The term "not commercial" in the following descriptions
refers to experimental processes that did not reach the market,
even though they may have been patented, reported in the
literature, or publicly exhibited. Authenticated specimens are
in several cases uncommon, but some were widely reported and
Condensed Descriptions and References
1844 ‑ Sir John Herschel: positive or negative on paper;
brown image that quickly faded. Also European name for
ambrotypes. See listing under same name in Glass section.
References: Eder [48, 339]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65,
151]; Snelling [133, 116‑120].
1842 ‑ Sir John Herschel, England.
Sensitive material ‑ flower juice extracts. Exposure
time 4 to 5 weeks. Impractical process, but consider its
implications in fading of vegetable dyes used for tinting
various types (see Delery ; Nicholson ; Rothery
References: Crawford [38, 67]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert
[65, 151]; Snelling [133, 37‑42, 113‑116].
1839 Albrecht Breyer, Belgium.
Negative facsimile of text (white letters on
brownish‑black background). A contact process: no camera
or lens used. Sensitive material: silver chloride. Rare.
References: Eder [48, 336]; Gilbert [65, 164].
(also Talbotype, salt print).
Patented 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot. In use to about
1860. Sensitive material: silver nitrate, often toned. First
commercial positive/negative process. Matte fiber printing-out
paper. Some fairly standard sizes: 4‑3/4 x 6‑1/2,
6‑1/2 x 8 1/2, 8‑1/2 x 10‑1/2, 9 x 11,
9‑1/2 x 11‑1/2, 12 x 16 inches.
Colors ‑ yellowish brown, rose, purplish, variable
References: Crawford [38, 22]; Eder [48, 316]; Gernsheim [61,
80; 162]; Gilbert [65, 152]; Jammes ; Lassam ; Thomas
[142, 56]; Welling [150, 91]; many other histories of
1844 ‑ Dr. Thomas Wood (Ireland).
Sensitive material ‑ iron iodide and silver nitrate;
image appearance after period of dark storage, the delay
attributed to catalysis.
References: Eder [48, 326]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65,
Also katatype; 1901, W. Ostwald, Germany.
An image transfer process utilizing paper soaked in hydrogen
peroxide and placed in contact with a silver or platinum print.
Gilbert describes it as "obscure".
References: Cassell's [84, 94]; Gilbert [65, 165].
(also LeGray process).
1851 ‑ Gustave LeGray, France.
Waxed paper negative, a modification of Talbot's calotype. The
purpose was to improve light transmission through the paper and
reduce the pattern of paper fiber during positive printing.
Cerolein is a white constituent of beeswax.
References: Crawford [38, 38]; Gilbert [65, 155]; Newhall
[105, 50]; Towler [145, 178].
Not commercial (low sensitivity).
1843 Robert Hunt.
Sensitive material: copper sulphate and potassium bichromate.
Direct positive. Colors ‑ orange, lilac.
References: Eder [48, 553]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65,
1842, Sir John Herschel.
Sensitive material: ferric salts developed with gold or silver
chloride; basis for later commercial kallitype.
Color ‑ purple.
References: Crawford [38‑68]; Gernsheim [61-169];
Gilbert [65‑ 154]; Lietze [92, 53]; Towler [145,
Color ‑ blue and white; the familiar blueprint, still
1842 ‑ Sir John Herschel: positive print from a
negative: blue image with white highlights. A print from a
positive line drawing produced white lines on a blue
1881 ‑ Henri Pellet (patent), positive print from a
positive: blue lines on white background from positive line
Good image permanence, limited tonal range. Paper was usually
sized to reduce penetration of image into the paper.
Sensitive material: iron salts, several processes: see
Lietze References: Burbank [28, 17‑24]; Crawford [38,
163]; Eder [48, 562]; Gilbert [65-154]; Lietze [92, 53;64];
Towler [145, 273]; Welling [150, 300].
1844 ‑ Robert Hunt.
Gum arabic salt print sensitized with silver nitrate,
developed in ferrous sulphate.
References: Eder [48‑326]; Gernsheim [61‑169];
Gilbert [65‑154]; Snelling [133, 111].
1889 Dr. Adolph Feer, Germany.
Not commercial in original form, but forerunner of commercial
Ozalid copy process.
Sensitive material ‑ based on aniline dyes; various
References: Eder [48, 550]; Gilbert [65, 154].
1844 ‑ Robert Hunt, England.
Variation of energiatype using sodium fluoride.
References: Eder [48, 326]; Gernsheim [61, 169]; Gilbert [65,
Also hellenotype; see Chapter 8
Variation of ambrotype.
Reference: Marder 
(also argentotype) 1843 ‑ Sir John Herschel, England.
1889 ‑ Dr. W.W.J. Nichol, England. Sensitive materials
‑ silver and ferric salts with variations. Usually brown
to reddish brown; appearance sometimes resembled platinotypes,
but with fading problems. Often coated and processed by
amateurs, until it was superseded by platinum and gaslight
papers. Colors ‑ brown, black, sepia, purple; matte fiber
References: Cassell's [84, 314‑316]; Crawford [38, 177];
[48, 543]; Gilbert [65, 155]; Jansen ; Schriever &
Cummings [131, 285].
See also Appendix II.
1870's; some vogue after World War I because of platinum
scarcity. Appearance similar to platinotypes; palladium salts
were cheaper than platinum and were sometimes used together in
mixed chemistry. References: Eder [48, 544]; Gilbert [65,
Patented 1873 by William Willis, England, who formed the
Platinotype Company 1879; sepia version patented 1878.
Colors: neutral black, silver‑gray; warm brown was less
common. Toning was not needed to improve permanence as it was
in silver prints. Very long tonal range, seldom faded. Embedded
image, matte fiber surface. Often regarded as the most
beautiful black and white process.
References: Crawford [38, 76]; Eder [48, 544]; Gernsheim [61,
345]; Gilbert [65, 156]; Lietze [92, 79]; Newhall [105, 142];
Welling [149, 83]; Welling [150, 258; 273]; The Photo
Invented 1850 by Louis Blanquart‑Evrard, France; in use
until the 1890’s.
The most widely used paper for forty years, consequently high
survival rate among 19th century photographs. A silver printing
out paper. Size ‑ to 30 inches wide.
Appearance: tinted, toned, faded; rose‑brown, purple,
yellow. Many specimens have a distinctive and almost unique
faded yellow color. Some have dyed albumen, several colors but
blue and pink were common. Very long tonal range. Thin dense
paper, usually glued to a decorative mount. Entire surface
usually glossy, rarely matte; according to Reilly (definitive
reference 121-132), print surfaces made after about 1870 were
glossier ('burnished') than those made earlier. Surface may
have fine eggshell texture and minute hairline cracks. No
baryta undercoat was used as it was with collodion and gelatin
papers; therefore paper fibers can be seen in the highlights of
albumen paper. Edges usually were hand trimmed and are often
References: Crawford [38, 45]; Eastman Kodak [47, 32;33]; Eder
[48, 339]; Gernsheim [61, 195; 401]; Gilbert [65, 151;157];
Lietze [92, 29]; Reilly ; Towler [145, 194]; Welling [150,
79]; Delery [42, 154]; Newhall ; Reilly et al .
Aristo paper 1880's
Trade name Aristotype or Aristotypie J. B. Obernetter,
Germany; commercial usage 1867 ‑ present (used for studio
proofing). Printing‑out paper; silver chloride or bromide
in collodion or gelatin with excess silver nitrate; later
versions with baryta undercoat to conceal paper fibers. Silver
chloride in gelatin was also available as developing-out paper
under trade names such as Velox. Color warm red, brown or
purplish, or glossy chocolate brown resembling albumen;
appearance and color differed depending on developers and
toners, leading to confusion in identification. Collodion POP
(Printing-Out Papers) coexisted with gelatin POP; see Chapter 2
for further information.
Ref. Newhall ; matte - Crawford ; Welling . In
matte form it resembled platinotypes. Commonly found as cabinet
cards and cartes‑de-visite.
References: Cassell's [84, 39]; Crawford [38, 63]; Eastman
Kodak [47, 34]; Eder [48, 448; 536]; Gernsheim [61, 399];
Newhall [105, 126]; Welling [149, 81]; Welling [150, 351].
A variation of the carte‑de‑visite with a convex
surface resembling a cameo medallion. Sometimes the effect was
produced with cotton padding under the print. Figure 3a shows
the front of a simple embossed cameo in side lighting; figure
3b is the reverse side. The emulsion is badly fissured because
of the forming process, which only shows in grazing
The image is 2" x 3".
Reference: Cassell's [84, 82].
Figure 3a Figure 3b
(also anthrakotype, chromotype, gum bichromate, hydrotype,
Lambertype, Mariotype, trade name Autotype). Early inventors
included Mongo Ponton, Scotland, 1839; W.H.F. Talbot, England
1852; Alphonse Poitevin, France 1855, Sir Joseph Swan, England
1864. The process utilizes gelatin sensitized with potassium
bichromate and developed in warm water (see Chapter 5), with
many variations. Poitevin added carbon dust as a pigment, but
it had poor tonal range until Swan developed the transfer
technique; the term "carbon" usually is applied to transfer
prints. "Carbon tissue" has been commercially available for
this technique from about 1864 until the present; tissue made
by the Autotype Co. was available in more than fifty colors.
Lambertype is a carbon transfer to an enamelled surface;
chromotype is the same process contact printed. Bichromated
gelatin is also the basis of collotype ink printing and the
manufacture of etched gravure plates, leading to confusion in
process descriptions. Some processes are still in use today.
Appearance: not faded; long tonal range after 1864; many
colors, with brown predominating; no grain or dot pattern;
glossy or matte; highlights show paper fiber; occasional
wrinkles from the transfer process. If mounted, the imprint
"Permanent" may be present on the bottom of the mount.
References: Cassell's [84, 31]; Crawford [38, 69]; Eder [48,
561]; Gernsheim [61, 338]; Gilbert [65, 152; 162]; Lietze [92,
77; 111]; owler [145, 277 ‑ 283]; Welling [149, 83];
Welling [150, 189; 245].
(also ozobrome, ozotype, Mariotype).
Inventors: A. Marion 1873; Thomas Manly: ozotype 1899;
ozobrome 1905. Marketed by Autotype Company 1919. A transfer
between a carbon print and a silver bromide-gelatin print. The
process is well described in Crawford [38‑187], and some
of the characteristic faults of transfer processes can help in
identification; see Chapter 4. Pigmented as were carbon
References: Crawford [38, 187]; Eder [48, 561]; Gilbert [65,
15]; Newhall [105, 276].
1893 ‑ Victor Artigue, 1900 ‑ Theodore Henri
Fresson, France. Pigmented gelatin, sensitized with potassium
bichromate and developed in an abrasive mixture of warm water
and sawdust; sold as Artigue Paper. Appearance similar to other
gum prints in many colors; according to Newhall [105‑147]
some workers' prints resemble water colors.
References: Crawford [38, 87]; Eder [48, 560]; Newhall [105,
147]; Holme [77, 214].
Many cabinet cards and cartes‑de‑visite carried
advertisements for crayon prints on their reverse sides.
Crayons were basically colored chalk or pastels used to tint
matte‑surfaced prints. Lithographic crayons were wax or
grease based and were used mostly in litho processing; they
were not used in the final print.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 152]; Darrah [40, 191‑192];
Barhydt . See also Appendix II.
Patented 1850 ‑ John A. Whipple, United States.
Salt prints made from albumen glass negatives containing
honey. Color ‑ brown. Whipple was primarily a
daguerreotypist but is credited with helping popularize paper
printing in the United States.
Cassell's lists "chrystollotype", attributed to a secret
process of Whipple; it may be a name variation of
crystallotype. Whipple apparently made albumen glass negatives
and albumen paper positives (Welling 150, 91‑93).
References: Cassell's [84, 108]; Taft [140, 120; 417]; Welling
[149, 105]; Welling [150, 72; 98].
1893 ‑ Some tradenames were Velox, Solio, Azo.
Gelatin silver chloride developing‑out paper. Less
sensitive than bromide papers, it could be exposed under
artifical light from a gas Welsbach mantle, and then developed
under the same light by turning down the gas. The shadows
characteristically show a reflective tarnished or bronzed
appearance (Eastman Kodak calls it "silvering"). For details
see Chapter 2 and Reilly . This
effect also occurs in other silver‑based emulsions,
including silver-gelatin glass plates, but it is usually more
pronounced in developing‑out papers.
References: Crawford [38‑65]; Eastman Kodak [47, 54; 30,
28;34]; Gilbert 65, 9]; Welling [149, 81].
1853 ‑ Marc Antoine Gaudin, France: See also
Gaudinotypes in the section Glass Bases.
Paper negative, early collodion or gelatin emulsions.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 154].
1894 ‑ a variation of the earlier carbon process, it
allowed easy manipulation of density and pigmentation for
artistic effects. See also gum platinum.
Appearance: sometimes printed in multiple layers to increase
image density; the structure may be seen under a microscope.
Glossy shadows, paper fibers in highlights. Many colors (see
Crawford 38, 202). May have brush marks to resemble paintings.
References: Crawford [38, 74; 88; 199]; Eder [48, 561 ‑
566]; Gernsheim [61, 463]; Gilbert [65, 154]; Newhall [105,
147]; Scopick ; Towler [145, 187]; Welling [150, 386].
Gum print on top of a platinotype. This unlikely combination
was introduced in 1898 to give the processor more manipulative
control over contrast and tone. Some good examples are
reproduced in Holme ; Edward Steichen was a leading
practitioner. Appearance: glossy shadows, matte fiber
highlights similar to carbon prints; misregistration between
the multiple layers may sometimes be seen microscopically; may
have some raised‑relief edges due to the thickness of the
References: Crawford [38, 88]; Eder [48, 561]; Gilbert [65,
154]; Holme [77, 214].
Patented 1889 ‑ A. H. Cros, France.
Dyed bichromated gelatin on paper and glass, leading to later
color processes such as pinatype.
References: Eder [48, 649 (glass)]; Gilbert [65, 162
1853, Dr. Langdell, Philadelphia; A.A. Martin, France. 1854;
G.M. Campbell, England, 1854.
Collodion print on black paper sensitized with silver nitrate;
a combination, like the ambrotype, not noted for its
References: Gernsheim [61, 237]; Gilbert [65, 152].
Paper coated with gold, silver, copper, or bronze metal
powders, with a printing‑out emulsion on top. The effect
was that of an image on metal. Uncommon.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 356].
ozobrome (also carbro)
1905 ‑ Thomas Manly, England.
Carbon prints made from gelatin silver bromide prints by
contact transfer; replaced the ozotype.
References: Cassell's [84, 386]; Crawford [38,188]; Eder [48,
562]; Gernsheim [61, 464].
(also Mariotype, carbro)
1899 ‑ Thomas Manly
Bichromated gelatin paper transfer, a variation of the carbro
process. Did not require light for exposure of the final
References: Cassell's [84, 387]; Crawford [38, 188]; Eder [48,
562]; Gernsheim [61, 464].
1864, George Simpson, England.
Silver chloride collodion fore‑runner of aristo paper in
References: Cassell's [84, 494]; Eder [48, 536]; Welling [150,
The original transferotype was silver bromide emulsion on top
of a soluble gelatin release layer on paper. After exposure and
development, the bromide layer was placed against the desired
base material and hot water applied to the paper backing, which
melted the gelatin and allowed the paper to be peeled off. As
with other transfer processes, the image was reversed. Later
bichromated gelatin and collodion images were transferred to
many different base materials.
References: Cassell's [84, 546]; Eder [48, 566]; Gilbert [65,
158; 166]; Towler [145, 150; 305].
Not commercial. 1864 ‑ J. Wothly, Belgium
Uranium and silver salts in collodion. Also made without
collodion, simply called uranium prints, without gloss.
References: Gernsheim [61, 344]; Gilbert [65, 156]; Lietze [92
121]; Towler [145, 273].
Patented 1854 ‑ James Cutting, United States; made until
Collodion negative on glass with a black backing which causes
the image to look like a positive. See "amphitype" for a
discussion of predecessors. Ambrotypes were cased like
Daguerreotypes and some tintypes which they resemble. See
The "relievo" (1857) is an ambrotype in which the background
was scraped off the collodion; the remaining image was then
backed with a light‑colored cardboard spaced behind the
plane of the image so that a three‑dimensional stacked
effect or relief was created. Relatively uncommon (Gernsheim
61, 237; Cassell’s 84, 457).
References: Crawford [38, 43]; Gernsheim [61, 199; 236];
Newhall [105, 63]; Towler [145, 128]; Welling [149, 5]; Welling
[150, 111]; Newhall .
1851 ‑ W.H.F. Talbot: albumen on glass. 1856 ‑
Blanquart‑Evrard: albumen on glass that could be viewed
as either a positive or a negative, similar to later
ambrotypes. 1840's ‑ Sir John Herschel positive or
negative on paper. The name "amphitype" was used in Europe for
the ambrotype; otherwise none of these processes became
commercial, except as forerunners.
Reference: Eder [48, 339].
(also collodion wet plate, collodiotype). 1851 ‑
Frederick Scott Archer; disputed by Cutting and LeGray. The
basis for collodion negatives on glass, ambrotypes, paper
prints, lantern slides. Superseded by gelatin on glass in the
1870’s, and on paper by albumen. Wet‑plate
can often be recognized by unevenly coated edges and other
hand‑coating blemishes. This was a characteristic of most
early coated‑glass processes; uneven edges on paper
prints could be trimmed while glass could not.
References: Crawford [38, 42]; Eder [48, 346]; Gernsheim [61,
197]; Gilbert [65, 130; 159]; Newhall [105, 59]; Taft [140,
118]; Towler [145, 144]; Welling [150, 126].
Glass negative, gelatin sensitized with bichromate and dyed
with carbon (India ink).
Reference: Gilbert [65, 162].
1850's (also Crystal photograph)
Albumen paper print sealed to the convex inner surface of a
cover glass, tinted and waxed, backed with white paper.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 154] (details of process); Gilbert
[65 158; 165]; Coe & Haworth‑Booth [32, 14]; Gill
1856 (also hallotype, hellenotype). Resembled crystoleums;
used hallotype or hellenotype (1857) process of mounting a
tinted transparency over a positive on glass or paper;
microscopic examination may show the multiple image. See
References: Cassell's [84, 181; 292]; Gilbert [65, 158].
Transparent positives used to make enlarged negatives for
contact printing; collodion or albumen.
Reference: Eder [48, 443]; Gernsheim [61, 313].
Patented 1850's ‑ William Campbell, United States. Flat
wetplate collodion negative sandwiched to wet‑plate
positive, waxed and tinted.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 158].
1861 ‑ Alexis Gaudin, France: Collodion or gelatin
emulsions on glass plates.
References: Eder [48, 376]; Gernsheim [61, 324; 327].
Patented 1850 ‑ Langenheim Brothers, Philadelphia.
Albumen lantern slides (positives). Color ‑ brown.
References: Eder [48, 340]; Gernsheim [61, 195]; Gilbert [65,
159]; Taft [140, 117]; Welling [150, 72; 78].
Tinted salt print, collodion or albumen image waxed to glass
and bound with white backing; resembles the later Eburneum
References: Cassell's [84, 313]; Gernsheim [61, 344]; Welling
[149, 113]; Welling [150, 136].
Opal (milky) glass with a gelatin‑bromide emulsion
exposed and printed conventionally, or a transferred
carbon‑gelatin image. Some images were collodion-silver
References: Gilbert [65, 165]; Cassell's ; Gill .
Patented 1856 ‑ Albert Bisbee, United States.
Positive image on spherical glass.
Reference: Gilbert [65, 168].
A dusting process predating photography, for producing a
random grain pattern in etched plates for halftone printing:
grain gravure as opposed to geometrical screen gravure.
References: Cassell's [84, 35]; Crawford [38, 245]; Eder [48,
591]; Jussim [85, 56; 339]; Towler [145, 289; 294].
Trade name from 1868, the Autotype Company was known for its
collotypes, carbon prints, and other processes.
Colors ‑ more than fifty.
References: Crawford [38, 73]; Eder [48, 626 ‑ 631];
Gernsheim [61, 548]; Newhall [105, 61]; Welling [150, 189;
1911; first suggested 1907 by E. J. Wall, England.
Prints resemble oil paintings. Ink transfer process; prints
were also made without transference. Greasy‑ink
impression from a gelatin silver bromide print. Ink may show a
microscopic random grainy texture (not a dot pattern) because
of variable ink penetration in the paper. Sometimes the final
picture simply consisted of the inked gelatin matrix; the
variations in gelatin thickness can be detected by finger
touch. The inked transfer print is as flat as the paper.
References: Crawford [38, 94; 213]; Eder [48, 563]; Gernsheim
[61, 484]; Holme [77, 215]; Thomas [142, 77; 78].
1866; Also Spitzertype, Stagmatype plates.
Brass halftone plates, forerunner of cuprotype plates in
References: Eder [48, 637]; Gilbert [65, 162].
(also Albertype, Albertotype, Autotype, Artotype, bromoil,
heliotype, Levytype, Paynetype, phototype, photoglyphic).
Inked print from bichromated gelatin plate; gelatin is a
protein colloid, hence the name collotype. Matte or glossy, any
color, black commonest. Microscopic wrinkled reticulated
pattern, irregular but not like the random grains in aquatint.
Processes not using a geometrical screen pattern closely
resemble original photographs. No fading.
Basic process patented 1855 by Alphonse Poitevin, France. Many
variations; some examples:
Albertype ‑ 1873; collotype process; often used
for postcards; maximum size 20 x 25 inches; ref. Jussim [85,
106]; Eder [48:431,513].
artotype - 1879; a collotype process; ref. Welling
heliotype ‑ Patented 1870, E. Edwards, England;
commercially successful, used by Mathew Brady; refs.
Gernsheim [61, 548]; Hearn [75, 341]; Welling [150, 274].
phototype ‑refs. Jussim [85, 248]; Welling
photoglyphic ‑ Talbot; ref. Crawford [38,
Other references: Crawford [38, 269]; Eder [48, 553; 563;
617]; Gernsheim [61, 547]; Gilbert [65, 276]; Gilbert [64,
162]; Jussim [85, 56; 248]; Newhall [105, 61; 251]; Welling
[149, 85]; Welling [150, 202; 222; 235].
1863 ‑ Campbell Duncan Dallas formed short‑lived
Inked engravings, not halftones.
References: Eder [48, 582]; Gernsheim [61, 543].
1871 ‑ William August Leggo
Screened halftone, inked. First used for printing a
References: Eder [48, 627]; Gilbert [65, 162].
Patented 1875 by L. E. Levy and D. Bachrach Jr.
Electrotyped swelled gelatin; a form of collotype.
References: Gernsheim [61, 551]; Welling [150, 236].
1886 - The Autotype Co.
One of the earliest commercial halftone processes.
References: Gernsheim [61, 550]; Jussim [85, 68]; Newhall
[105, 251; 253]; Welling [150, 277].
A trade name for Daguerreotypes made in the United States by
John Plumbe. Listed here because he also made etchings
derived from Daguerreotypes for ink reproductions.
References: Gernsheim [61, 126]; Gilbert [65, 163].
Patented 1864 ‑ Walter B. Woodbury, England. Also
(French name); stannotype, a variation. The image consists of
dyed gelatin with no grain or screen pattern, applied to paper
under hydraulic pressure. Maximun size 11 x 14 inches. Any
color but warm brown was commonest, with long tonal range, no
fading. More closely resemble original photographs then any
other photomechanical process. Sometimes marked "permanent" or
"Woodburytype" on mounting. Frequently mass produced and bound
or "tipped" into books. More likely to show raised relief at
the edges of shadows than carbon prints. Carbon and
Woodburytype prints are difficult to distinguish: both have
glossy shadows, but Woodburytypes may also show gloss in the
highlights. Fibers are visible in the highlights of both types.
Woodburytypes have trimmed paper edges because the hydraulic
process caused oozing of the gelatin, and sometimes showed dark
particle flaws in the highlights.
References: Crawford [38, 285; 289]; Eder [48, 619]; Gernsheim
[61, 340; 341; 540]; Gilbert [65, 163]; Newhall [105, 251];
Welling [149, 85]; Welling [150, 202; 235]; Reilly [122, 65,
Patented 1837 ‑ L. J. M. Daguerre, France. The first
commercially successful photographic process. Made until about
1860. Always enclosed in glass‑fronted case. Voluminous
documentation: see Chapter 7 for full description and
Several types: collodion image fired on enamelled copper; or
fish glue sensitized with ammonium bichromate, fired on copper
or zinc; many colors.
References: Burbank [28, 165‑189]; Cassell's [84,
217‑218]; Gernsheim [61, 343]; Towler [145, 308]; Thomas
Patented 1863 ‑ Simon Wing, Boston
A miniature tintype 1 x 1‑3/8 inch. Figure 11 shows a
typical Gem in a brass frame crimped to a cardboard carte de
visite; there were many mounting variations.
References: Gilbert [65, 160]; Taft [140, 164]; Welling [150,
(also ferrotype, Gem, melainotype).
Patented 1856 ‑ Hamilton L. Smith, United States.
Collodion image on black or brown japanned iron, which is
magnetic. The image often shows crazing, especially visible in
the highlights. Very popular process, in use until about 1930.
The largest size was 6‑1/2 x 8‑1/2 inches. See
Chapter 7 for full description.
References: Crawford [38, 44]; Eder [48, 370]; Gernsheim [61,
237]; Gilbert [65, 155; 160]; Taft [140, 153]; Towler [145,
142]; Welling [149, 31]; Welling [150, 117].
J.W. Draper, U.S.
Copper‑plated duplicate of gilded Daguerreotype.
Reference: Cassell's [84, 543]; Gilbert [65, 168].
Tintype process (collodion) applied to varnished cardboard or
leather. In other variations both collodion and bichromated
gelatin were transferred.
References: Cassell's [84, 330]; Gilbert [65, 158]; Welling
Late 19th century. Colored aniline dye images on paper and
References: Cassell's [84, 184]; Eder [48, 550]; Gilbert [65,
1865 ‑ E. Burgess.
A collodion‑gelatin composite transfer process, with
zinc oxide pigment backing that looked like ivory. First
deposited on glass, then peeled off and remounted. Reference:
Cassell's [84, 206]; Gernsheim [61, 344].
Also linotype ("lin‑" refers to the linen base, not to
be confused with the newspaper linotype machine). 1856 ‑
linen base, stretched on frames and oil‑colored. Image
printed by Talbotype salt print process. Few surviving
Reference: Eder [48, 325]; Gilbert [65, 165].
Patented by Eastman chemists. Widely used for roll and sheet
film in many sizes including 35mm cine and still film.
Extremely flammable and unstable: see Chapter 3.
References: Eastman [47, 90]; Eder [48, 489]; Hager [69, 1];
Gernsheim [61, 408]; Rempel [124, 7].
1853 ‑ Wulff & Co., France.
Collodion image on black waxed linen or dark leather. Few
surviving specimens. Reference: Eder [48, 370].
c1939, Eastman Kodak Co.
Principally cellulose acetate, marked "SAFETY FILM" on edges.
Eastman produced acetate films as early as 1909 (Eder 31, 491)
but they were not widely used at that time. Some stripping
films were made from 1884 to c1890 that were composed of
gelatin, which is not very flammable, depending on condition.
Others were collodion-gelatin composites, less flammable than
nitrate film but still not considered safety films. See Chapter
Microphotograph (about 1/8 inch diameter) mounted with an
integral lens in jewelry and souvenirs, such as tiny ivory
telescopes and many other forms. The lens was invented by Lord
Charles Stanhope before 1816.
Reference: Gilbert [64, 171]; Gilbert [65, 167].
Collodion and albumen emulsions and bichromated gelatin were
transferred to many kinds of base materials. Transfer processes
reverse the image (Chapter 10).
References: Cassell's [84, 546]; Eder [48, 558;
607‑624]; Gilbert [65, 158; 166]; Towler [145, 150;